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Posts Tagged ‘Teotitlán del Valle’

In Oaxaca, at any time of year, images of la Virgen de Guadalupe (Our Lady of Guadalupe) are never far away.

April 8, 2022 – Wall of a building on Calz. de la República, Oaxaca city.
March 24, 2022 – Wall inside Casa Ocho Regiones, Oaxaca city.
November 2, 2022 – Cemetery in Tlacolula de Matamoros.
February 3, 2022 – Guadalupe (on the right) at the restaurant Almú in San Martín Tilcajete.

However, today, December 12, is Día de la Virgen de Guadalupe and she and her image are being celebrated — including by the danzantes of Danza de la Pluma Promesa 2022-2024 in Teotitlán del Valle.

The legend of La Virgen de Guadalupe is known to every Mexican, every person of Mexican descent, and probably every foreigner who calls Mexico home. The image of this dark-skinned Virgin Mary who spoke Náhuatl is as imprinted on the national consciousness as she was on Juan Diego’s legendary tilma (cloak).

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Why I love Oaxaca, reason number 2,022 — music is heard everywhere and seemingly all the time. November 22 is Día de Santa Cecilia who, among other things, is the patron saint of musicians.

July 4, 2022 – Convite for the Preciosa Sangre de Cristo patronal festival in Teotitlán del Valle
July 23, 2022 – Guelaguetza Desfile Magesterial in Barrio de Jalatlaco
July 9, 2022 – Calenda celebrating the anniversary of La Mano Magica Galería in Oaxaca de Juárez
September 16, 2022 – Independence Day parade in Oaxaca de Juárez
August 25, 2022 – 35th birthday celebration in Barrio de Jalatlaco
August 20, 2022 – Strolling Tuna Band from URSE in Barrio de Jalatlaco

And, since this post honors musicians, how about a little music…

Traditional teponaxtles and chirimía played outside the panteón of San Antonino Castillo Velasco on Palm Sunday 2022 and brass band in Barrio de Jalatlaco, Oaxaca de Juárez on the 6th Friday of Lent, Viernes de Dolores 2022.

A big muchisimas gracias to musicians all over the world who provide the soundtrack of our lives.

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Every Día de Muertos, I love seeing the artistry of public ofrendas, feel honored being welcomed into the homes of friends and placing pan de muertos on their very personal ofrendas, and enjoy assembling my own ofrenda to departed loved ones. (Click on each image to see the details.)

Mitla – Ofrenda in the home of master weaver Arturo Hernandez Quero.
Mitla – Public ofrenda in the main plaza. Note the intricately decorated pan de muertos.
Teotitlán del Valle – Ofrenda of the weaver Pedro Montaño and cocinera Carina Santiago family in the Tierra Antigua restaurant and gallery.
Teotitlán del Valle – Ofrenda in the family home of weaver Zacarias Ruiz and Emilia Gonzalez.
Barrio de Jalatlaco – Private ofrenda open for public viewing at the corner of 5 de mayo and La Alianza.
Barrio de Jalatlaco – Family adding the finishing touches to their ofrenda. (They graciously gave me permission to take the photo.)
Casita Colibrí – My ofrenda in the daylight.
Casita Colibrí – My ofrenda at night awaiting the arrival of my departed.

I love the spicy and welcoming scents of cempasúchitl (marigolds), lacy flor de muerto from the Sierra Norte, pan de muertos, and incense of copal.

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For two days following the previously mentioned convite inviting the villagers of Teotitlán del Valle and guests to the festival honoring the Virgen del Rosario (Virgin of the Rosary), the Danza de la Pluma was performed in the atrium of the church. The Danza de la Pluma is a ritual reenactment of the battles between the Aztec and the Spanish conquistadors. There are thirty nine dances that tell the story. This is the Chotis de 4 Reyes– a Schottische performed by the four kings allied with Moctezuma.

As you can see, the dance steps are complex and made all the more challenging by the wind, which comes up most late afternoons this time of year, catching the massive penachos (the headpieces) worn by the dancers. By the way, this day was the actual feast day so they danced for seven hours. I don’t know how they do it!

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As the days become shorter and the sun appears lower in the sky, in Oaxaca the shadows play.

September 7, 2022, 3:11 PM. White-winged dove on my rooftop terrace.
September 30, 2022, 6:00 PM. Convite in Teotitlán del Vallle.
October 6, 2022, 8:42 AM. My staircase from the atrium to the rooftop.

Between funny and witty
Falls the shadow

-Stephen Fry, The Fry Chronicles

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A BFF since age twelve (don’t ask how long ago that was) and her husband are visiting. I took them to the weaving village of Teotitlán del Valle for the Santísima Virgen del Rosario festival — three days of witnessing the weft of Spanish conquistador Catholicism woven onto the warp of indigenous Zapotec culture. The public festivities began with Friday evening’s convite — a formal 45 minute procession, through the streets of the village, that serves as an invitation to the festival.

Canastas, with images of Mary and Jesus, waiting to be carried on the heads of unmarried young women and girls.
Young boys waiting with marmotas on tall carrizo poles.
Band #1 leads off the convite with a giant Viva la Virgen marmota.
At least 100 young unmarried women and girls, in traditional festival dress, carry canastas on their heads through the cobblestone streets.
Band #2 provides the music for the danzantes who follow.
Danza de la Pluma danzantes, with rattles shaking, march and dance their way through the streets.

I think my friends were impressed!

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In Teotitlán del Valle, the dancers of the Danza de la Pluma (Feather dance), make a solemn commitment to their faith and to their community to dance for three years at each of the four major annual religious festivals in their village. 2022 brings a new group and the festival honoring Preciosa Sangre de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo the first of their public performances for the residents of their village and visitors. They dance four times during this festival — two half days and two full (7 hours) days.

July 5, 2022…

La Malinche (Silvia Melissa González Pérez), Moctezuma (Emmanuel Ruiz Ruiz), and Doña Marina (Youshita Yamilet Vasquez Jim.)
Teotitlán de Valle, Danza de la Pluma promesa 2022-2024.
Danzantes dancing like puppets on a papel picado string.
Subalterno helping Rey 4, Luis Ángel Bazán Ruiz, with his penacho (headdress).
Subalterno taking a selfie with a “borrowed” phone.

July 6, 2022…

Capitán 2, Hugo Félix Santiago Jiménez.
Dancers of the Danza de la pluma promesa 2022-2024.
Moctezuma, Emmanuel Ruiz Ruiz.
Doña Marina, Youshita Yamilet Vasquez Jim.
La Malinche, Silvia Melissa González Pérez.
Danza de la pluma promesa 2022-2024, Teotitlán del Valle.

On the superficial level, the Danza relates the story of the Conquest — the Spanish, Moctezuma, his allies, and Malinche/Doña Maria. But, as is the genius of art, it reaches into our hearts and souls and explores and communicates the truths we know and feel.

In 2022, they will dance again for Natividad de la Virgen María in September, Rosario de la Virgen María in October, and the Fiesta a la Virgen de Guadalupe on December 12.

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The annual convite at the beginning of July in Teotitlán del Valle has not only been an invitation to the village’s patronal festival honoring Preciosa Sangre de Cristo. For me, it has also served as an invitation to a month of non-stop celebrations and events — an excuse to set aside my daily routines and chores and, instead, revel in the color and culture on display in the streets of the city and the small towns dotting the valley of Oaxaca.

The church, Preciosa Sangre de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo, ready and waiting for the convite to begin.
Picacho, the sacred mountain envelops the community in its protective arms, as the canastas and unmarried young women and girls of the village take their place in line for the convite.
Boys clutching their mini marmotas patiently wait for the deafening sound of the cohetes (rockets) signaling the convite’s start.
Boys and their mini marmotas at the head of the convite — accompanied by a few dads, big brothers, uncles, and officials to keep them in line.
Two monos (new addition this year) and one of several gigantic marmotas follow close on the heels of the young boys.
Of course there is a band to set the tempo.
Arms raised, contingents of unmarried women and girls carry canastas decorated with religious imagery.
Most are dressed in the valley’s traditional enredos (wool wrap skirts) and colorfully embroidered white blusas from Oaxaca and Chiapas.
In this Zapotec villlage, the beauty of the faces and strength of their arms are a sight to behold — especially Beatriz (foreground), who is very dear to my heart.
A second band marks the approach of the danzantes.
Danzantes of the Danza de la Pluma Promesa 2022-2024 alternately march and dance their way along the cobblestone streets.
Picacho watches as the danzantes wend their way along the meandering streets of Teotitlán del Valle.
Villagers watch as danzantes Moctezuma, Malinche and Doña Marina, followed by another marmota, and town officials mark the last of the convite’s participants.

After almost an hour, the convite and its contingents returned to the church atrium. Their work, of extending an invitation to the festival, is finished — until next time!

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Yikes, I realized it’s been nine days since my last blog post. Time does, indeed, fly when you’re having fun. And, fun is what I’ve been having, especially during the last four days.

July 4, 2022 – Convite in Teotitlán del Valle for their patronal festival honoring Preciosa Sangre de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo.
July 5, 2022 – Morning hike in the hills of Teotitlán del Valle.
July 5, 2022 – Afternoon presentation of the Danza de la Pluma in honor of Preciosa Sangre de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo in Teotitlán del Valle.
July 6, 2022 – Full day of Danza de la Pluma honoring Preciosa Sangre de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo in Teotitlán del Valle.
July 7, 2022 – Calenda celebrating the 35th anniversary of the Galería La Mano Mágica in Oaxaca city.

More on the convite, Danza de la Pluma, hike, and calenda to follow. But, first, a return to Teotitlán del Valle today for the final Danza de la Pluma presentation for this festival.

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These are the scenes that soothe my soul…

Metates, molcajete, and comal.
Barro rojo and cactus.
Chiles and bean pot.
Black beans.
Cactus and agave.

A long weekend spent with my comadres and compadre at Tierra Antigua.

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I’m home in Barrio de Jalatlaco — rested, recovered, and caught-up — after a three-day fiesta at the home of my compadres in Teotitlán del Valle. Tranquil before photos…

Dried corn husks in waiting.
Shadows on the wall.
Nixtamalizing dried corn kernels.
Courtyard art of the arrangement.
Dried corn: To be cleaned, rejected, and keepers (top to bottom).

Three days of breakfasts, lunches, and dinners with 20 to 160 family members and compadres, formal presentations, and a ritual ceremony — all to acknowledge and celebrate the promise of marriage between the youngest daughter and her intended. More from the celebrations to come.

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I’m bidding a fond, but with a hint of “good-riddance to bad rubbish,” farewell to 2021. In truth, I’m trying not to view the recent piles of basura (garbage) in the streets and bloqueos (blockades) by the garbage collectors as a metaphor for this past year of pandemic, fires, floods, and general pandemonium in the world.

Long walks around the city sufficed to fill my need to “travel” until the spring when my world expanded — with untold gratitude to scientists for their work in developing vaccines to help protect us from worst case Covid-19 scenarios. After fourteen months, armed with the vaccine, cubrebocas (face masks), caution, and excitement, I began venturing out of the city (even up to el norte twice), spending time with family and friends, and actually attending activities and events in person, not just via Zoom. It was almost, but not quite, like normal — and it was good!

January 17, 2021 – Templo y Convento de San Francisco de Asís Oaxaca
February 7, 2021 – Tapete woven by Mario González Pérez; Sangre y Herencia exhibition at Hotel Casa Antigua.
March 8, 2021 – Busy street corner in the city.
April 2, 2021 – La Morada de Colibrí, one of my favorite stalls at Pochote Xochimilco Mercado Orgánico y Artesanal.
May 26, 2021 – Rooftop art in Barrio de Jalatlaco.
June 25, 2021 – Bike rally passing the ADO bus station — saying “No to violence against women” by students from Colegio Superior para la Educación Integral Intercultural de Oaxaca.
July 13, 2021 – Outside wall of La Mano Magica Gallery/Galería promoting the Shinzaburo Takeda exhibition.
August 1, 2021 – Guerreros baseball game dining at Estadio de Béisbol Lic. Eduardo Vasconcelos.
September 4, 2021 – Tree down on Czda. de la República after strong winds and very wet rainy season.
October 19, 2021 – “No Llores Por Mi” sculpture by a Santa María Atzompa artist — Día de Muertos exhibition at ARIPO.
November 1, 2021 – Neighbor weeding and cleaning the street in preparation for the evening’s Muerteada.
December 12, 2021 – In honor of the Virgen de Guadalupe, the last dance by Danza de la Pluma de Teotitlán del Valle, Promesa 2019 – 2021.

Feliz año nuevo y muchisimas gracias to all my wonderful blog readers for “hanging in” and for your encouraging comments during these challenging times — it means the world to me! May 2022 be kinder to all and bring you peace, joy, and health.

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No sooner had I returned to Oaxaca than I left again. However, this time it was to spend only a few days in Teotitlán del Valle for Guadalupe’s feast day and the celebration ending the three year commitment by the dancers of the Danza de la Pluma Promesa 2019-2021. (More about that in a later post.) In addition, after almost a two year absence, I also managed to spend a few hours in Tlacolula de Matamoros and San Pablo Villa de Mitla.

Umbrellas of Mitla – December 13, 2021
Nacimiento of Tlacolula – December 13, 2021
Papel picado of Teotitlán – December 12, 2021

My friend K and I took local buses and I am happy to report everyone on the buses was masked and we even had to disembark at a checkpoint before entering Mitla. Once we and the interior of the bus were disinfected, we reboarded and headed into the town.

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Tomorrow may be Día de la Virgin de Guadalupe, but she is never far from sight no matter the day or place.

May 25, 2021 – Somewhere between Oaxaca’s airport and Barrio de Jalatlaco.
July 5, 2021 – Convite in Teotitlán del Valle.
January 3, 2021 – Outside the Iglesia de San Matias Jalatlaco.
August 11, 2021 – Along a sidewalk in Oaxaca de Juárez.
December 13, 2020 – Vendor offerings on the sidewalk of the Macedonio Alcalá.

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In Teotitlán del Valle, the fiesta honoring Preciosa Sangre de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo is the most important one of the year. It lasts eight days, includes two convites (processions), several special masses, and (in non Covid years) two fireworks’ displays. However, the highlight for visitors and villagers is the four performances of the Danza de la Pluma by the Grupo de Danza de Pluma Promesa.

El Picacho, the sacred mountain, watches over the village and the dancers.
The choreography includes athletic leaps, twists and turns, and complex footwork.
Maneuvering the penachos/coronas/headdresses as the dancers navigate the step takes strength and timing.

The Danza de la Pluma is a ritual re-enactment of the Spanish conquest.  The full version is told in 41 bailes (dances) and lasts from early afternoon into the night.  It is danced by folkloric groups throughout the valley of Oaxaca. However, in Teotitlán, it is a three year religious commitment. 

Rattles, paddles, and breastplates of old coins are part of the dancers’ costume.
In Teotitlán del Valle, Moctezuma’s penacho features the symbol of Mexico: Eagle and serpent on a cactus.
Moctezuma, accompanied by a Danzante, with Doña Marina and La Malinche

Moctezuma, Danzantes, Subalternos, Malinche, and Doña Marina are selected years in advance and make a promise to their god and, thus, their church and community to learn and perform the dance at each of the four annual major religious festivals in the village and any other special occasion they are called upon to dance.

La Malinche.
The dance divides the historic person of Doña Marina and La Malinche into two characters.
Doña Marina.

A 20+ piece orchestra accompanies the dancers, playing a musical score mostly comprised of waltzes, polkas, mazurkas, quadrilles, and schottisches. The first time I saw the Danza de la Pluma, I experienced a bit of cognitive dissonance at the contrast between the costumes and the music. A little research (after all, I’m a librarian) provided the explanation. At the end of the 19th century, when all things European were being celebrated in Mexico, an orchestra playing European music replaced the original indigenous teponaztli (drum) and chirimía (flute).

Subalterno providing a little comic relief.
Wearing their trademark cross between a boar and bear wooden black masks, Subalternos posing for the camera.
Subalterno taking a break from his Aide-de-Camp duties of offering water to the dancers, dealing with wardrobe malfunctions, clearing debris from dance floor, and entertain spectators.

On two of the days the dancers dance for four hours and the other two, they dance for seven hours. The sun can be brutal and the wind can wreak havoc with the penachos. I don’t know how they do it — their stamina is astounding! I only managed to attend a few hours each at three of the performances. However, I will be back in September for the Natividad de la Virgen María fiesta.

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